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What Is Prompt Engineering in Machine Learning?

What is Prompt Engineering?

Prompt engineering is the process of formulating inputs (prompts) to an AI model (usually an LLM) to achieve the desired outputs. In layman’s terms, prompts are used to guide the AI model towards a specific type of response. It is like programming, but with natural language instead of code.

In AI systems like language models or image generation models, the quality and specificity of the prompt can significantly affect the quality and relevance of the output. Therefore, effective prompts are usually detailed, providing information like context, the requested tone, or the expected format of the output.

How is Prompt Engineering Used in the AI Development Pipeline?

Prompt engineering is an important component of AI model development. Prompt engineering AI is used for:


During the training phase, prompt engineering is used to create effective training data that guide the language model’s learning process. The prompts are designed to be diverse and cover a wide range of topics, styles and structures. This ensures that the model is exposed to various scenarios and can learn to respond appropriately. Prompts can range from simple questions to complex scenarios requiring the model to understand context, demonstrate reasoning, or showcase creativity (see examples below).


By analyzing the model’s responses to specific prompts, developers can identify areas where the model might be underperforming or misunderstanding context. This feedback loop helps in refining the model’s algorithms to improve accuracy and relevance in its responses.


After deploying, prompt engineering is used to continuously provide feedback to the model. It helps in identifying biases, gaps in knowledge, or issues with understanding context. By looking at users’ prompts that specifically target these areas, developers can iteratively improve the model’s performance.

Why is Prompt Engineering Important for Deploying AI?

Prompt engineering is an important component contributing to the successful deployment of AI systems. This is due to a number of reasons:

  • Enhancing Model Performance – Prompt engineering directly influences the performance of AI models. Well-designed prompts enable models to understand the context better and provide more accurate, relevant responses. This is particularly necessary for real-world applications.
  • Positive User Experience – The quality of prompts significantly affects the user experience. Good prompts lead to better interactions, making the AI more user-friendly and accessible. In customer-facing applications, a successful interaction with the AI can impact customer satisfaction and engagement.
  • Customization per Use Case – Different applications require different types of responses. Prompt engineering allows for the customization of prompts to suit specific domains or industries.
  • Feedback Loops – In deployment, the responses to prompts provide valuable feedback. Analyzing these responses helps in identifying areas for improvement, whether in the AI model itself or in the design of the prompts, leading to a cycle of iterative and continuous improvement.
  • Scalability and Adaptability – Effective prompt engineering makes it easier to scale and adapt AI systems to new domains or evolving user needs.

Examples of Prompt Engineering

Prompt engineering is applied in many AI contexts, from generating creative content to improving search results. Here are examples across various domains of ChatGPT prompt engineering to illustrate the concept:

Language Models

Without Prompt Engineering:

  • Query: “Translate to French: How are you?
  • AI Response: “Comment allez-vous?”

With Prompt Engineering:

  • Query: “Translate the following colloquial English greeting into conversational Parisian French: ‘How’s it going?'”
  • AI Response: “Ça va ?”

The engineered prompt specifies the style and dialect, leading to a translation that matches a more colloquial and regional use.

Image Generation

Without Prompt Engineering:

  • Query: “Create an image of a dog.”
  • AI generates a generic image of a dog.

With Prompt Engineering:

  • Query: “Generate a high-resolution image of a Siberian Husky in the foreground with the Northern Lights visible in the sky, reflecting off a snow-covered landscape.”
  • AI generates a detailed and specific image matching the scene described.

The engineered prompt includes details about the breed, background and environmental effects, helping the AI model create a more accurate and rich image.

Search Algorithms

Without Prompt Engineering:

  • Query: “Best laptops 2023”
  • AI returns a list of popular laptops.

With Prompt Engineering:

  • Query: “List the top 5 laptops released in 2023 that have a battery life of over 10 hours and are under $1500, suitable for graphic design work.”
  • AI returns a curated list of laptops that match the specific criteria provided.

This prompt directs the AI to consider specific features, price range and use case, yielding a more tailored response.

Developer Tools

Without Prompt Engineering:

  • Query: “Error in Python code.”
  • AI asks for more information or gives a general response about common Python errors.

With Prompt Engineering:

  • Query: “Diagnose a Python runtime error where ‘list’ object is erroneously used instead of ‘dict’, resulting in ‘TypeError’ during a ‘for’ loop iteration.”
  • AI provides a specific explanation for the ‘TypeError’ and suggests how to correct the mistake.

Examples of Prompt Engineering for Training and Fine-tuning

Prompt engineering for training and fine-tuning AI models, particularly language models like ChatGPT, involves creating specific scenarios or questions that guide the model in understanding context nuances and complexities of human language. Here are some examples:

Training Phase

  • Basic Understanding – Simple prompts like “What is the capital of France?” test basic factual knowledge.
  • Contextual Comprehension – Prompts that require context awareness, e.g., “I spilled coffee on my shirt. What should I do?” Here, the model needs to understand the situation and provide a practical solution.
  • Creative Responses – Asking the model to write a short story based on specific keywords or themes tests its creativity and ability to generate coherent and engaging narratives.
  • Technical Knowledge – For training a model to assist with technical queries, prompts might involve coding questions, such as “Explain how a merge sort algorithm works.”
  • User Interaction Simulations – Crafting scenarios where the model interacts with different user personas to understand varying tones, vocabularies, and types of queries.
  • Moral and Ethical Reasoning – Presenting ethical dilemmas, like “Is it okay to break a promise?”, tests the model’s ability to understand complex human values.

Fine-Tuning Phase

  • Specialized Knowledge – Involves prompts that require detailed, industry-specific responses, such as “Explain the principle of public key cryptography” for a cybersecurity-focused model.
  • Error Correction – Feeding incorrect or suboptimal responses back into the model with prompts for correction or improvement.
  • Handling Ambiguity – Prompts that are intentionally ambiguous, like “Tell me about Java,” where the model must clarify whether the user is asking about the programming language or the island.
  • Emotion Recognition – Queries that require understanding of emotional cues, for example, “I’m feeling overwhelmed with work. What should I do?” Here, the model needs to provide empathetic advice.
  • Cultural Sensitivity – Questions that test the model’s ability to respond appropriately to culturally diverse contexts, ensuring respect and sensitivity.
  • Bias Detection – Using prompts that could potentially elicit biased responses to ensure the model remains neutral and fair.

Tips and Best Practices for Writing Prompts

When writing prompts for training and fine-tuning AI models, several best practices and tips can significantly enhance the effectiveness of the process. This of this as your prompt engineering guide:

  1. Ensure that each prompt is clear and specific. Ambiguity in prompts can lead to ambiguous responses, which might not be helpful for training. A well-defined prompt guides the model more effectively towards the desired response.
  2. Include a wide range of topics, styles and complexities in your prompts. This diversity helps the model learn to handle different types of queries, from simple factual questions to complex scenarios requiring reasoning, creativity, or technical knowledge.
  3. Include prompts that require understanding of context or multiple steps of reasoning. This challenges the model to think beyond the immediate query and consider broader implications or background information.
  4. Start with simpler prompts and gradually increase the complexity as the model improves. This step-by-step approach helps in systematically building the model’s capabilities.
  5. Use prompts that test the model’s ability to handle sensitive topics appropriately. This includes avoiding biases, respecting cultural differences and understanding ethical nuances.
  6. Incorporate prompts that mimic real-world scenarios and user interactions. This prepares the model for practical applications and helps in understanding how users might actually engage with it.
  7. Design prompts that can help in assessing the model’s performance and areas of improvement. For example, prompts that the model has previously struggled with can be used to test if improvements have been effective.
  8. When evaluating the model’s responses, apply consistent criteria. This helps in accurately assessing the model’s learning progress and areas where further training is required.
  9. Include prompts that represent edge cases or less common scenarios. This ensures the model is robust and can handle a variety of situations, even those that are less typical.
  10. Continuously update the prompt pool with new and relevant topics, especially to reflect current events or emerging trends. This keeps the model current and relevant.

Prompt Innovations

The possibilities available with prompts push the borders of our imagination. There are creative and innovative ways prompts can be used to produce improved or novel outcomes. Here are some examples of such innovations across various AI applications:

  • Dynamic Prompting – Instead of static prompts, dynamic prompting involves altering the prompt based on previous interactions or new information, allowing for a more conversational and context-aware exchange with AI systems.
  • Chain of Thought Prompting – This approach involves writing prompts that include a “chain of thought” or the reasoning process needed to arrive at an answer, which can significantly improve the performance of AI in complex reasoning tasks.
  • Zero-Shot and Few-Shot Learning – Advancements in AI have enabled models to understand and perform tasks with little to no prior examples. Prompt engineering for these models often involves crafting prompts that can guide the model to apply its learned capabilities to new tasks.
  • Meta-Prompts – Meta-prompts are prompts about prompting—essentially, instructing an AI on how to develop or refine prompts for specific tasks, leading to a more meta-level of AI instruction and use.
  • Multimodal Prompts – With the advent of multimodal AI models capable of understanding and generating text, images, and other data types, prompt innovation includes creating inputs that span multiple modes of communication to achieve richer interactions.
  • Interactive Prompting for Iterative Refinement – This technique involves the use of interactive prompts that help refine the AI’s outputs through a series of exchanges, essentially using the AI’s responses to inform the next set of prompts.
  • Prompt Templates – Developing reusable prompt templates for common tasks can streamline the use of AI for frequent and repetitive tasks, ensuring consistent and efficient results.
  • Prompt Personalization – Tailoring prompts to individual user preferences, historical interactions, or specific demographic data is an emerging area that can significantly enhance user experience and output relevance.
  • Contextual Embeddings – Incorporating contextual information within the prompt, such as time, location, or recent events, to give AI models a better framework for generating appropriate responses.
  • Automated Prompt Engineering – Using AI to assist in the creation and optimization of prompts, potentially leading to a self-improving system where AI helps refine its own instruction set.
  • Safety and Bias Checks – Implementing checks and balances within the prompting process to identify and mitigate potential biases or unsafe outputs from AI models.